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PostSubject: Timeline   Timeline EmptyMon Nov 18, 2013 6:01 am

In chat the subject came up of major event in the life of the boys. Of course, we don't know the end of the story (our wonderful writers are still making that up) so I have included a time line of the first fifty years of the events they may have discussed or read about in the press.


1850–1899



1850 President Taylor dies (July 9) and is succeeded by his vice president, Millard Fillmore.

The continuing debate whether territory gained in the Mexican War should be open to slavery is decided in the Compromise of 1850: California is admitted as a free state, Utah and New Mexico territories are left to be decided by popular sovereignty, and the slave trade in Washington, DC, is prohibited. It also establishes a much stricter fugitive slave law, than the original, passed in 1793.

1852 Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel, Uncle Tom's Cabin is published. It becomes one of the most influential works to stir anti-slavery sentiments.

1853 Franklin Pierce is inaugurated as the 14th president (March 4). Gadsden Purchase treaty is signed; U.S. acquires border territory from Mexico for $10 million (Dec. 30).

1854 Congress passes the Kansas-Nebraska Act, establishing the territories of Kansas and Nebraska (May 30). The legislation repeals the Missouri Compromise of 1820 and renews tensions between anti- and proslavery factions.

1857 James Buchanan is inaugurated as the 15th president (March 4). Dred Scott v. Sanford: Landmark Supreme Court decision holds that Congress does not have the right to ban slavery in states and, furthermore, that slaves are not citizens.

1858 Abraham Lincoln comes to national attention in a series of seven debates with Sen. Stephen A. Douglas during Illinois state election campaign (Aug.–Oct.).

1859 Abolitionist John Brown and 21 followers capture federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Va. (now W. Va.), in an attempt to spark a slave revolt (Oct. 16).

1860 Abraham Lincoln is elected president (Nov. 6). South Carolina secedes from the Union (Dec. 20).




1861 Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, and Louisiana secede (Jan.). Confederate States of America is established (Feb. 8). Jefferson Davis is elected president of the Confederacy (Feb. 9). Texas secedes (March 2). Abraham Lincoln is inaugurated as the 16th president (March 4).


1861–1865 Civil War: Conflict between the North (the Union) and the South (the Confederacy) over the expansion of slavery into western states. Confederates attack Ft. Sumter in Charleston, S.C., marking the start of the war (April 12, 1861). Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee secede (April–June). Emancipation Proclamation is issued, freeing slaves in the Confederate states (Jan. 1, 1863). Battle of Gettysburg is fought (July 1–3). President Lincoln delivers the Gettysburg Address (Nov. 19). Gen. William T. Sherman captures Atlanta (Sept. 2, 1864). Lincoln's second inauguration (March 4, 1865). Gen. Ulysses S. Grant captures Richmond, Va., the capital of the Confederacy (April 3). Confederate general Robert E. Lee surrenders to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse, Va., (April 9).

1863 Homestead Act becomes law, allowing settlers to claim land (160 acres) after they have lived on it for five years (Jan. 1).

1865 Lincoln is assassinated (April 14) by John Wilkes Booth in Washington, DC, and is succeeded by his vice president, Andrew Johnson. Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution is ratified, prohibiting slavery (Dec. 6).

1867 U.S. acquires Alaska from Russia for the sum of $7.2 million (treaty concluded March 30).

1868 President Johnson is impeached by the House of Representatives (Feb. 24), but he is acquitted at his trial in the Senate (May 26). Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution is ratified, defining citizenship (July 9).

1869 Ulysses S. Grant is inaugurated as the 18th president (March 4). Central Pacific and Union Pacific railroads are joined at Promontory, Utah, creating first transcontinental railroad (May 10).

1870 Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution is ratified, giving blacks the right to vote (Feb. 3).
1871 Chicago fire kills 300 and leaves 90,000 people homeless (Oct. 8–9).

1872 Crédit Mobilier scandal breaks, involving several members of Congress (Sept.).

1873 Grant's second inauguration (March 4).

1876 Lt. Col. George A. Custer's regiment is wiped out by Sioux Indians under Sitting Bull at the Little Big Horn River, Mont. (June 25).


1877 Rutherford B. Hayes is inaugurated as the 19th president (March 5). The first telephone line is built from Boston to Somerville, Mass.; the following year, President Hayes has the first telephone installed in the White House.

1881 James A. Garfield is inaugurated as the 20th president (March 4). He is shot (July 2) by Charles Guiteau in Washington, DC, and later dies from complications of his wounds in Elberon, N.J. (Sept. 19). Garfield's vice president, Chester Alan Arthur, succeeds him in office.

1882 U.S. adopts standard time (Nov. 18).

1885 Grover Cleveland is inaugurated as the 22nd president (March 4).

1886 Statue of Liberty is dedicated (Oct. 28). American Federation of Labor is organized (Dec.).

1889 Benjamin Harrison is inaugurated as the 23rd president (March 4). Oklahoma is opened to settlers (April 22).

1890 National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) is founded, with Elizabeth Cady Stanton as president. Sherman Antitrust Act is signed into law, prohibiting commercial monopolies (July 2). Last major battle of the Indian Wars occurs at Wounded Knee in South Dakota (Dec. 29). In reporting the results of the 1890 census, the Census Bureau announces that the West has been settled and the frontier is closed.

1892 Ellis Island becomes chief immigration station of the U.S. (Jan. 1).

1893 Grover Cleveland is inaugurated a second time, as the 24th president (March 4). He is the only president to serve two nonconsecutive terms.

1896 Plessy v. Ferguson: Landmark Supreme Court decision holds that racial segregation is constitutional, paving the way for the repressive Jim Crow laws in the South (May 18).

1897 William McKinley is inaugurated as the 25th president (March 4).


1898 Spanish-American War: USS Maine is blown up in Havana harbor (Feb. 15), prompting U.S. to declare war on Spain (April 25). Treaty of Paris is signed, ending the Spanish-American War (Dec. 10); Spain gives up control of Cuba, which becomes an independent republic, and cedes Puerto Rico, Guam, and (for $20 million) the Philippines to the U.S.

1898 U.S. annexes Hawaii by an act of Congress (July 7).

1899 U.S. acquires American Samoa by treaty with Great Britain and Germany (Dec. 2).


Read more: 1850–1899 | Infoplease.com http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0903595.html#ixzz2l0NkcrIz
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RosieAnnieUSA

RosieAnnieUSA

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PostSubject: Re: Timeline   Timeline EmptyTue Nov 19, 2013 4:54 pm

If I may, I'd like to add a postscript to this very useful list. There was, indeed, a terrible fire in Chicago in 1871. What many people don't know is, that very same day, there was another terrible fire to the north, in Peshtigo, Wisconsin. Peshtigo was a center for the logging industry. The fire that spread through the dry woods that day took at least 1,200 lives, and almost certainly there were many more fatalities scattered at camps throughout the North Woods.

If you'd like more information about this nearly-forgotten tragedy, here is a link.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peshtigo_Fire
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Remuda

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PostSubject: Re: Timeline   Timeline EmptyTue Nov 19, 2013 8:07 pm

This list is a great idea. I know it's not meant to be exhaustive but I noticed one event in particular not included -- the great flood in Johnstown, Pennsylvania in 1889. Certainly it has nothing to do with the boys per se, but I presume they'd have read about it.

For more info -- http://www.nps.gov/jofl/index.htm and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johnstown_Flood

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PostSubject: Re: Timeline   Timeline EmptyWed Nov 20, 2013 11:29 am

Hi All,

Please feel free to add to these timelines. These will be so useful to writers and wonderful bunny prodders!albino 
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RosieAnnieUSA

RosieAnnieUSA

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PostSubject: Re: Timeline   Timeline EmptyThu Nov 21, 2013 5:39 pm

One more item that may make a few bunnies hop, MAP. . . the Hard Winter of 1886-1887 that effectively ended the era of the open range and the cattle drive. This article below mentions Montana, but the hard winter also affected Wyoming and Colorado.
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When folks from Montana talk about tough winters, several are mentioned: the winters of 1919-1920, 1935-1936, 1948-1949 and 1968-1967.Then  most likely the conversation will turn to the hard winter of 1886-1887...THE BIG DIE-UP. The severity of this winter has become legend. The truth is that this winter can be matched in terms of severity.  Other winters have tested Montanans with earlier blizzards, longer periods of sustained cold, deeper snows or less relief from chinooks.  THE BIG DIE-UP earned its name because of the tremendous livestock destruction that occurred.

                A number of factors combined to wreck havoc among Montana's cattlemen and sheepmen in 1886-1887. Stockgrowers had operated in the Montana territory since the 1860s but they had moved onto the grassy public domain only during the 1870s.Scores of livestock companies, both from the United States and abroad, flooded the Montana prairies with locally-bred cattle, Texas longhorns and cattle from the Midwest and the West Coast. Each outfit established their own range and ran from 500 to 75,000 head on its self-designated area of the public domain. Only an occasional voice reminded cattlemen of the dangers of overstocking.  While the winter of 1885-1886 had been a relatively mild one in Montana, it had been severe in Texas and the ranges to the south. As a result, cowhands trailed some 15,000 head from these hard hit regions to Montana. Much of the public domain in Montana became acutely overstocked.

    The winter of 1885-1886 had been relatively mild. However, the normal Montana spring rains did not materialize. By July of 1886, and extreme drought spread across the Montana plains The prairies grasses were stunted and sparse.  Grazing herds traveled further for less grass and both cattle and sheep put on little weight. That summer, temperatures were searing, and dry winds evaporated any moisture left in the grass mat. Temperatures were reported of up to 108 degrees. Creeks and streams were bone dry. Rivers as large of the Rosebud stopped flowing. Grasshoppers descended in large dark clouds on portions of the grasslands. Range fires stripped other grasslands of even their sparse growth. Autumn rains, when they finally did come, were too late to improve the grass..

      There were many signs that indicated a tough winter ahead. Beavers stocked abnormally large supplies of saplings for the winter. The bark on cottonwood trees had grown with unusual thickness and toughness. Ducks and geese started their southern migrations early. Many birds that normally wintered in Montana disappeared to the south. Muskrats built their creek houses twice the normal height; and their fur was longer and heavier than usual. Even the range cattle took on longer and shaggier coats of fur. In the middle of November, the winter hit with a fury.  An Artic storm brought 6 to 10 inches of snow that drifted with the howling winds. The temperature dropped to minus 20 and did not rise above freezing for the rest of the month. Herds of cattle and flocks of sheep drifted with the blizzard and many of the weaker animals perished. Cowboys and herders were found frozen.

          In mid-December, there was some relief, when temperatures moderated and the heavy snowpack began to melt. In some areas, there was a drizzling rain that resulted in a thick cover of  thick slush over the snow. Then in  late December, the temperatures dropped to the minus 30s. A thick crust of ice formed over the snow pack. Through January and February, temperatures remained below freezing and this impenetrable sheet of ice did not melt. Moreover, snowstorms and driving winds dumped additional snow on top of the ice. Bands of cattle drifted with the storms until they were piled up in draws or coulees or against line fences, where they froze to death standing upright. Lead cattle ventured onto frozen rivers where they tried to reach the open water flowing under air bubbles in the ice, only to be forced into the holes and drowned  by the anxious cattle that followed them. Surviving cattle tried to reach the grass but the ice crust cut their noses, which became bloody and swollen.  In places where they broke through the ice, the ice shards lacerated their legs. Most of them lost strength, and finally died. Coyotes, wolves and other predators stalked them without mercy. Hundreds of thousand of cattle and sheep perished.

          Finally, at the end of February, 1887, after more than 100 days of severe winter weather, a long awaited chinook (a warm dry wind that flows down the eastern slopes of the Rockies) arrived. Within a week, the snowpack disappeared and cowhands and sheepmen were able to survey the horror.  Bloating carcasses littered the ranges and were piled up grotesquely in draws and coulees. The carcasses had been ripped by wolves, coyotes, smaller animals and birds of prey. The stench of rotting meat carried for miles. Some streams were forced from their banks during the springs runoff, when carcasses of decaying cattle, sheep and horses dammed up their normal course.

           This tragic winter broke the back of many cattle speculators, and the hard winter brought many changes to the cattle industry. Montanans rebuilt cattle herds on smaller ranches with barbed wire fenced ranges, where they owned or leased the land instead of grazing cattle on the public domain. They learned the value of winter feeding and raised and stored hay. Cattlemen constructed barns, sheds and windbreaks to protect cattle during severe weather.  They brought in blooded bulls to raise the quality of their herds; and today, Montana cattle are valued for their hardiness.
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